Course Content
Obstetrics and Gynaecology
All Krok 2 Questions in Subject Wise Format
About Lesson


Interstitial Nephritis

Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is a condition characterized by inflammation and swelling of the interstitial tissue of the kidneys. The interstitial tissue is the area between the kidney tubules where blood vessels and other structures are located. AIN can result in impaired kidney function and, if left untreated, can lead to chronic kidney disease.

AIN can have various causes, including:

    1. Drug-induced: AIN is commonly caused by certain medications, particularly nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), antibiotics (such as penicillin, cephalosporins, and sulfonamides), proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), and diuretics. Drug-induced AIN is usually an allergic reaction to the medication.

    1. Infections: Certain infections, such as bacterial or viral infections, including streptococcal or viral hepatitis, can cause AIN.

The symptoms are general like all other kidney diseases fever, flank pain, edema, hematuria, oliguria, dysuria


    1. Urine analysis: To check for abnormalities in urine, such as the presence of blood or protein.

    1. Blood tests: To evaluate kidney function and identify any underlying causes, such as infections or autoimmune diseases.

    1. Kidney biopsy: In some cases, a small sample of kidney tissue may be removed and examined under a microscope to determine the cause of AIN and assess the severity of inflammation.

Treatment for AIN involves identifying and removing the underlying cause. In severe cases which lead to kidney failure, dialysis or kidney transplantation may be necessary.


Acute glomerulonephritis (AGN), also known as acute nephritic syndrome, is a condition characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli, which are tiny filtering units in the kidneys.


    • Infections: The most common cause of AGN is an immune response triggered by a preceding infection, particularly with certain strains of B hemolytic streptococcal bacteria that cause strep throat(quinsy, angina, tonsillitis) or skin infections.

Symptoms :

    1. Hematuria: Blood in the urine, which may make the urine appear reddish or brownish, cola colored. It is because Vessel wall damage is caused by immune complexes in the glomerular apparatus of nephrons.

    1. Proteinuria: Excessive protein in the urine, which may result in foamy urine.

    1. Cylindruria

    1. Edema 

    1. Hypertension because of activation of the RAAS system.

RAAS system

Renin angiotensin system
Source: Britannica


    1. Usually clinical based on history like Urine tests and Blood tests

    1. Kidney biopsy: In some cases, a small sample of kidney tissue is taken to examine it under a microscope, providing detailed information about the type and severity of glomerular inflammation.




Join the conversation
0% Complete